Friday, December 25, 2009

Tuesday, December 8, 2009

The Tale of the Bad Mother

Once upon a time, there lived a mother who had many children. She's not like other mothers. To paraphrase an animal story, this mother treated her children equally, although some are more equal than the others.

The mother hated the independent-minded children. She punished them for the slightest infractions. Even if they knew they were doing the right thing, the mother did not look at them with loving eyes.

The mother liked her brown-nosing kids - those who gushed at her every move, who praised her despite her partiality and cruelty. She gave them what they wanted as long as their loyalty was hers. And their devotion to her grew, thanks to all the gifts they received.

Needless to say, the mother loved her children conditionally.

There was one son that the mother loved most of all. Once, this child brought home a diamond ring as a gift to her mother. Everyone knew the child couldn't have afforded it, but the mother accepted the gift nonetheless. Her adoration for the child even grew.

As time passed by, the child grew into a bully. If he set his sight on something, he would get it at any cost. But no one would stop him, not even the mother. He was the mother's fair-haired boy, and she was the son's doting parent.

One day, he had a squabble with her sister. She wanted the bully's candy, which enraged the boy. The bully beat her sister to a pulp, all because she longed for his candy. All the other children were shocked. Some were outraged, some were scared. None could do anything about it.

The mother wouldn't have lifted a finger as well, although she knew that she had created a tyrant. If it weren't for the neighbors' horrified looks, she wouldn't have considered a slap on the wrist. Truth be told, he kind of frightened her, so she was afraid to hurt the boy's feelings. She tiptoed around the boy's room, looking for a way to approach him.

She is still scuttling outside the room, thinking of ways to make the most out of the situation, as all the neighbors and children look on.

The end?

Photo credit: Brian Yap, Flickr, Creative Commons

Tuesday, November 24, 2009

Maguindanao Massacre

I was browsing through an Australian newspaper online when I chanced upon the ghastly news that is the Maguindanao massacre. I thought it was a "normal" scuffle between supporters of two political factions. Boy was I wrong. What happened in Maguindanao is the very definition of massacre.

We are a nation used to exaggerations. Take the word massacre for example. Ask everyday Pinoy what massacre means, and the first thing that comes to mind is Carlo Caparas and his tacky rape films in the 90s. Massacre actually means the killing of a large people indiscriminately; slaughter; savage and excessive killing of many people. However gruesome those rape cases (and movies) were, massacre, they were not.

Now, what happened in Maguindanao, that is what you call a massacre.

That kind of heartless act is what you would normally see in the movies, or read in history books. You would not expect in 21st century Philippines. It is saddening and enraging at the same time to see that kind of barbaric act - and for what? For a mere gubernatorial position? How low can you go?

I don't care if it's a political, cultural or religious thing. This is just plain unacceptable. I hope the national government is not just paying lip service when it says it will suppress lawless violence in the area.

Just when the nation is at a high, thanks to the great feat of Efren Penaflorida (and to a lesser extent, Manny Pacquiao), we are now again in the global news for the wrong reason.

Photo: Andrew Mason, Flickr, Creative Commons

Monday, November 23, 2009

Premature Campaign Rant

Finally, COMELEC has spoken up on the issue of premature campaigning. But it is still not enough to stop the deluge of premature campaigning.

A snippet of a Sun Star news article says:
Comelec earlier warned the candidates that once the certificate of candidacy (COC) is filed, infomercials and other forms of propaganda materials must be stopped. Even solicitation for the holidays is not allowed.
Which means that an elective aspirant can file his COC on the last day. Until then, he can bombard us with those annoying infomercials.

I'm sick of these commercials. There is one which describes what a leader ought to be, conveniently forgetting the fact that when the person was in position, he did not do what he ought to have done. There is one which is fully packed with personalities and nothing else. There is one which pits the sans culotte against the supercilious. This is the worst sort of propaganda - the mud-slinging type. It will only get ugly from here on out.

The only good thing I can say is that there is no aspirant yet who has graced us with a song and dance number to the tune of a tacky jingle. Oh wait, I forgot about Bobby Syjuco.

So wala. Walang magandang maidudulot ang mga infomercial na 'yan. Just don't ask the big networks, who are laughing all the way to the bank.

Photo: The Library of Congress, Flickr, Creative Commons

Thursday, November 19, 2009

Political Ad Overload

Anyone tired of political ads raise your hands.

Almost every presidential and vice presidential candidate is doing it. The problem is, no one - not even COMELEC - can stop it. COMELEC itself has said that there is no premature campaigning if a person has not submitted his certificate of candidacy. But anyone with a functioning eye or ear knows that these people are throwing away money in order to make themselves known. And this leads to the inevitable conclusion that they are campaigning, tama po ba?

The problem is with the our election law; it allows a "non-candidate" to show ads to toot his own horn months before the campaign period. Perfectly legal under the law but it runs counter to the most common of common sense. Can we trust our legislators to plug this gaping loophole? I doubt it.

So the ball is in our court. It is up to us viewers to discern which ad is true and which is not. Just remember, these political ads are just that - advertisements. And like any other advertisement, the the real thing almost always falls short of the product shown in the commercial. Just like mouth-watering hamburgers shown in ads, but are bland in real life.

Caveat emptor. Let voter beware.

Photo: Ollie Crafoord, Flickr, Creative Commons

Friday, October 23, 2009

Hector de Leon Now Online

I first encountered Hector de Leon during college, when his books were the required reading materials for our Obligations and Contracts and Partnerships and Corporations class. I would later find out during law school that he has authored numerous books covering a wide array of legal topics, rivaling perhaps only Jose Nolledo (If you are a law student and you have not been hiding under a rock, I'm sure you have encountered de Leon). Because he has written books for a wide spectrum of law subjects, he may be suspected as a Jack-of-all-trades, master of none type. But make no mistake, he is a successful author because he writes in a clear and understandable manner especially helpful to students. For that he should be given credit.

Thanks to Lex Discipulus, I have found out that Hector de Leon Jr. (Son of the ubiquitous Hector de Leon, who co-authored some books with his father, I think) has gone digital. He has a blog, Lexoterica: A Philippine Blawg, which can be a very useful tool for law students and practitioners alike. What I like best about his blog is that he makes a summary of the latest Supreme Court cases, which can greatly help lawyers in refreshing their knowledge of Philippine jurisprudence. Perhaps next only to Lawphil, the Supreme Court site and ChanRobles, this is probably the most useful website for those in the legal profession.

Friday, October 16, 2009


The bulk of the news today still center on the devastation wrought by Pepeng and Ondoy. It is heart-wrenching to see our brethren helpless amidst storms, floods and landslides. When Ondoy struck, practically everyone in greater Manila area was affected, including us in Malabon. People in our area are used to floods, so the only casualties were the properties not brought to higher ground. Not so lucky were people in other parts of Luzon (notably Marikina and Pasig), some of whose lives were lost. The same goes true for the people in Pangasinan, who bore the brunt of typhoon Pepeng's wrath. For those who lost loved ones, my heartfelt condolences.

It is an anomaly that for a nation hit regularly by typhoons year in and year out, we still seem unprepared for the worst. My father observed that the recent events show that the Philippines is still a country in infancy – we seem to have no set policy and standards on, among other things, disaster preparedness. Almost every action is backed by guesstimation. Tantsahan ba. Hopefully, as we pick up ourselves from the shambles, every person has gotten some learning experience from these events. It is about time, right?

Photo: Dan Saavedra, Flickr, Creative Commons

The Return

After a forlough of several months, I am back to writing (hopefully regularly) in this blog. I'll admit that writing again seems like an unfamiliar territory for me, much like a person who has not ridden a bicycle in a long time. Hopefully, I will get my groove back ASAP.

Wednesday, August 5, 2009

President Cory: Gone, But Will Never be Forgotten

What I will say might have already uttered a great many times, but no matter. This is my tribute to our beloved President Cory Aquino.
I have to say that I am deeply affected by the demise of President Cory, I cannot exactly pinpoint why. I was only in 4th grade when she stepped down as president. Sure, I saw  her on TV every once in a while. I had a vague idea of who she was and what she represented (through class lessons and stories from my parents). But the significance of what Cory did never really hit me until a few years later, during EDSA II. I would imagine that EDSA II paled in comparison with the original People Power, in terms of magnitude and chutzpah. But that sense of control, empowerment and pride felt during EDSA II  made me appreciate what the Cory-led revolution was and what it stood for.
I also think that the loss of Cory is so palpable because she passed away at a time when our nation is desperately longing for a true leader. We have an abundance of people acting as warlords, but we have not enough people acting as servant-leaders. What I admire about Cory is that for her, power was a means, and not an end. This is, of course, in sharp contrast to the contemporary politicians, who do everything they can to cling to power, and who spend millions advertising on TV, already campaigning for an election which is still 10 months away.
I take my hats off to President Cory. I have nothing but respect and gratitude. I'm sure history will be very kind to her. For what she represented, she will be immortalized in the collective memory of the Filipinos. For all the good that she did, she will always be revered by a grateful nation.
By the way, if you want to offer prayers or condolences to the Aquino family, you can do so by clicking here.

Monday, July 20, 2009

Cheaper Medicines Now

A controversy regarding the Cheaper Medicines Act arose a few days ago, when Senator Juan Ponce Enrile revealed an alleged bribe by one pharmaceutical company. It's not exactly a bribe, more of a donation, in favor of the government. And that is not necessarily a bad thing, and there's nothing illegal with such an act. It is within a corporation's power to donate to the government. In fact, it is a good thing. Taken at face value, giving discount cards for the people to use is a nice gesture on the part of the pharmaceutical company.
The alleged bribery was denied by the company, so we must give them the benefit of the doubt. If they say that there's no intention to bribe, then let us assume that the discount cards were given out of pure gratuity.
Same with the voluntary price cut proposals. From the point of view of pharmaceutical companies, proposing voluntary price cuts can be a win-win compromise for both parties. It is understandable from the perspective of a profit-driven entity to maximize money coming in.
However, these acts should NOT in anyway influence the full implementation of the Cheaper Medicines Act. The implementation of the price ceiling is long overdue, and much needed by the people. We have suffered long enough from having exorbitant prices of medicines. It is only natural that pharmaceutical companies will do everything in their capacity in order to stall or prevent the implementation. But who is in charge here anyway? The government should correct the anomaly in our country of having one of the cheapest cigarettes while having one of the most expensive medicines in Asia, if not the world. The cigarette situation will take a longer time to correct, but having cheaper medicines would be a good start.

Friday, May 22, 2009

Succession Bill: Massive Failure

Trust our solons to make the most inane and opportunistic suggestions.

I had to laugh when I read about the suggestion of some of our lawmakers to pass a Succession Bill in case of a failure of elections next year. The proposed bill will give powers to Congress to appoint a temporary president.

First off, if you were disgusted/appalled/turned off by this suggestion, then the parliamentary form of government is not for you. The set-up that our lawmakers are proposing is akin to a parliamentary form of government. The parliamentary system, in a nutshell, is when we vote for the legislators, and the legislators vote for the prime minister. So when the issue of the parliamentary system in charter change comes up, remember your reaction when you first heard of the Succession Bill, and base you decision with that in mind.

Second, I don't know if the proponents of the bill know their law (as they should, they are the ones who make them in the first place), then it would be patently clear to them that what they are proposing is unconstitutional. The Constitution provides that the president should be voted at large. An exception to this is if in case president resigns, dies, becomes permanently disabled or is removed from office. in such a case, the line of succession will apply i.e. Vice President (gasp!), Senate President (double gasp!), House Speaker (triple gasp!). Another exception is when there is an extra-constitutional move to replace the president (e.g. EDSA, but this will not likely happen in the near future). So there is no way for congressmen to give themselves the power to choose who the president would be, whether acting or not, and whether there is a failure of elections or not. 

Photo: fireflythegreat , Flickr, Creative Commons

Tuesday, May 12, 2009

An Extreme Disbarment Case

We have some shady lawyers in this part of the globe, but the story of a Florida lawyer is one for hte books.

AP reports about a Florida lawyer who had sex with his clients. But it's not just some simple, consensual sex. The report goes:
[T]he man admitted having sex with his 18-year-old client and another woman in exchange for credits toward her $2,300 fee for handling an assault case.
He agreed to take off $200 every time he had sex with her and $400 when she arranged sex with another woman.
 The end result? Disbarment.

Monday, May 11, 2009

Case Digest: Ormoc Sugar Company v. Treasurer of Ormoc


G.R. No. L-23794,  February 17, 1968

Ormoc city passed an ordinance which provides: 

"There shall be paid to the City Treasurer on any and all productions of centrifugal sugar milled at the Ormoc Sugar Company, Incorporated, in Ormoc City, a municipal tax equivalent to one per centum (1%) per export sale to the United States of America and other foreign countries."
Ormoc Sugar Company filed a complaint against the city of Ormoc, alleging that the afore-stated ordinance is unconstitutional for being violative of the equal protection clause (Sec. 1[1], Art. III, Constitution) and the rule of uniformity of taxation (Sec. 22[1]), Art. VI, Constitution)

ISSUE: W/N the ordinance violates the equal protection clause and the uniformity of taxation/


The equal protection clause applies only to persons or things identically situated and does not bar a reasonable classification of the subject of legislation, and a classification is reasonable where (1) it is based on substantial distinctions which make real differences; (2) these are germane to the purpose of the law; (3) the classification applies not only to present conditions but also to future conditions which are substantially identical to those of the present; (4) the classification applies only to those who belong to the same class.

A perusal of the requisites instantly shows that the questioned ordinance does not meet them, for it taxes only centrifugal sugar produced and exported by the Ormoc Sugar Company, Inc. and none other. At the time of the taxing ordinance's enactment, Ormoc Sugar Company, Inc., it is true, was the only sugar central in the city of Ormoc. Still, the classification, to be reasonable, should be in terms applicable to future conditions as well. The taxing ordinance should not be singular and exclusive as to exclude any subsequently established sugar central, of the same class as plaintiff, for the coverage of the tax. As it is now, even if later a similar company is set up, it cannot be subject to the tax because the ordinance expressly points only to Ormoc City Sugar Company, Inc. as the entity to be levied upon

Saturday, May 9, 2009

The Philippine Economy from the Outside Looking In

If there is one thing that the Pacquiao-Hatton match has shown us, it's that middle class Filipinos still have money to burn. Last Sunday, cinemas and restaurants showing the match were still filled with Pinoys wanting to watch the fight live (instead of waiting until  3pm to see the knockout punch on free tv). And it's not cheap - prices range from P250-P750 per person.
So it is a paradox called the Philippines, wherein almost every country in the world is feeling the effects of global financial crunch, and yet the Filipinos' lives go on. 
Philip Bowring of the New York Times gives his take on the Philippine economy, and explains why the very things that keep us afloat are the very reasons why we have not advanced, and will not  advance, economically. Click here for the article.

Thursday, May 7, 2009

Pacquiao and the Congressmen, distinguished.

One of my favorite columnists, Conrado de Quiros, always has a way with words. In his column yesterday , he illustrated how Congressmen differ from Manny Pacquiao. Here's the best one: 
When Pacquiao left for Vegas, he did so using his own money. Or whoever it is that pays for the travel expenses of prizefighters when they fight in strange shores. As soon as he got to Vegas, he went straight to the gym and got to business. A thing that alarmed his trainer, Freddie Roach: Pacquiao was so determined to work Roach feared he might overdo it. Pacquiao himself knew he was playing for very high stakes, his nation’s honor being on the line, and didn’t want to gamble with it wantonly.
When the congressmen left for Vegas, they used our money, except that they said they were using their own money. In their minds at least they weren’t lying—they have always assumed our money to be theirs. As soon as they got there, they hit the bars and the casinos, determined not to lose any time sleeping. A thing that much elated the managers of those joints. At the rate the Filipino congressmen were spending, they thought, they could bail America out of its recession. The congressmen knew they were playing for very high stakes, their personal fortunes being on the line, and they gambled in wild abandon.

Funny stuff.

Wednesday, May 6, 2009

Baring the Consequences of the Naked Truth

Last week, four scantily clad members of People for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) held a mini-demonstration in front of Manila Zoo, bearing placards which read, "Have a Heart, Boycott the Zoo."
Here's a snippet of a news report by ABS-CBN:
"We need to do what it takes to get people to pay attention, and if it means showing some skin, that's what we'll do. We think it's important to raise awareness on a very serious issue, and we thought using a fun, attention-grabbing way would be the best way to draw attention to the issue of these suffering animals in Manila Zoo," said Rochelle Regodon, PETA campaign manager.

The trick worked, Regodon said, because their office phones were ringing off the hook from people eager to get more information about the Manila Zoo campaign and help their cause.
It elicited more than double takes from the crowd. It drew the attention of the Bureau of Immigration, holding that the foreigners who took part in the demonstration (3 of the 4 were caucasians) could face deportation.  A GMA news report reads
Commissioner Marcelino Libanan said the country’s immigration laws do not allow foreigners to join mass actions.

"We welcome them here as visitors. They cannot just protest here, especially if it violates the culture of Filipinos," he said.
I'm not familiar with all the immigration and deportation laws, but is there a ground (a statute or a administrative regulation) for doing so?
And even assuming that there is a ground, wouldn't it run counter to the Constitution? Our most fundamental law guarantees full civil rights even to aliens (Vera v. Avelino), which includes the right to free speech (Simon v. CHR).
Oh sure, the mode of expression may be shocking for some, but there were more demonstrations which were more shocking to the senses (remember the sexy starlet in her birthday suit who said "Yes to War, No to Peace!" instead of the other way around?). And besides, the cause PETA is fighting for is definitely legit. 
I haven't heard about this issue again, but surely, it was merely a knee-jerk reaction of the honorable BID Commissioner?   

Photo: Bob Kramer, Flickr, Creative Commons

Tuesday, May 5, 2009

Running for the Wrong Reasons

The campaign season hasn't officially started. But some politicians are already making moves which, by all indications short of saying that they are running, proclaim to the whole nation that they are running. While they are in their right to burn their OWN money (note the emphasis) by buying primetime TV ad spots, the whole thing is kind of crass.

Anyway, here's a Dilbert comic strip that I archived months ago, knowing fully well that it will come in handy in the future. How right I was.

Sunday, May 3, 2009

When Pacquiao Fights, You Do Not Blink

You should not take your eyes of the screen, you should not do anything else.

That being said, as the 2nd round of his fight with Hatton was coming to a close, I reached for my cellphone and WHAM! The fight was over. I didn't see the knockout punch.

Saturday, May 2, 2009

2009 Bar Examniations Coverage

Note: I just checked the Supreme Court website , but the coverage for the 2009 Bar exams has not been posted. However, I got this from an email, and I think this is the real deal.

*Decisions of the Supreme Court, promulgated up to 30 June 2008, and Republic Acts, Presidential Decrees and Executive Orders, promulgated up to 31 December 2007.
1.     Constitutional Law
2.     Political Law
3.     Administrative Law and Law on Public Officers
EXCLUDE: Implementing Rules and Regulations of different agencies
4.     Laws on Suffrage
5.     Local Government Code (R.A. 7160) (Basics)
EXCLUDE: Provisions Relating to Local Taxation
6.     Public Corporations
7.     Public International Law

* Decisions of the Supreme Court, promulgated up to 30 June 2008, and Republic Acts, Presidential Decrees and Executive Orders, promulgated up to 31 December 2007.

I.               Labor Laws (Labor Standards Law and Labor Relation Law)
a)     Labor Code of the Philippines (P.D. No. 442, as amended)

Books I, II, III, V, VI, and VII
b)    Thirteenth (13th) Month Pay Law (P.D. No. 851, as amended)
c)     The Omnibus Rules Implementing the Labor Code of the Philippines
d)    Guidelines for the Exercise of the Right to Organize of Government Employees, etc. (Executive Order No. 180, June 1, 1987)
II.             Social Legislation
a)     Social Security Act of 1997 (R.A. No. 8282)
b)    Government Service Insurance Act of 1997 (R.A. No. 8291)
c)     Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995 (R.A. No. 7877)
d)    Agrarian/Land Reform Laws
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law
Employees Compensation and State Insurance Fund
* Decisions of the Supreme Court, promulgated up to 30 June 2008, and Republic Acts, Presidential Decrees and Executive Orders, promulgated up to 31 December 2007.
1.     Civil Code of the Philippines
INCLUDE: The Law on Sale of Subdivision Lots and Condominium (P.D. No 957) and the Condominium Act (R.A. No. 4726)
EXCLUDE the following:
a) Code of Muslim Personal Laws of the Philippines (P.D. No. 1067)
b) The Rental Law (B.P. Blg. 25 and amendments)
c) Intellectual Property Law
2.     The Family Code of the Philippines
EXCLUDE: Child and Youth Welfare Code (P.D. 603)
3.     Domestic Adoption Act of 1998 (R.A. No. 8552)
4.     Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 (R.A. No. 8043)
5.     Property Registration Decree (P.D. No. 1529)
INCLUDE: Public Land Law (C.A. No. 141, as amended)
6.     Conflict of Laws (Private International Law)
* Decisions of the Supreme Court, promulgated up to 30 June 2008, and Republic Acts, Presidential Decrees and Executive Orders, promulgated up to 31 December 2007.
1.     General Principles of Taxation
2.     National Internal Revenue Code
a)     Comprehensive Tax Reform Act of 1997 (R.A. No. 8424) – Provisions in effect
b)    All Value Added Tax (VAT) laws in effect
3.     Tarriff and Customs Code
 EXCLUDE: Arrastre and Classification of Commodities
4.     Republic Act No. 1125, Creating the Court of Tax Appeals, as amended
5.     The Local Government Code on Taxation
* Decisions of the Supreme Court, promulgated up to 30 June 2008, and Republic Acts, Presidential Decrees and Executive Orders, promulgated up to 31 December 2007.
1.     Code of Commerce
a)     Merchants and Commercial Transactions, Articles 1-63
b)    Letters of Credit Under the Code of Commerce (Articles 567-572)
INCLUDE the ff:
i)               Bulk Sales Law (Act No. 3952)
ii)             The Warehouse Receipts Law (Act No. 2137 in relation to the General Bonded Warehouse Act [Act No. 3893])
iii)            Presidential Decree 115 on Trust Receipts
2.     Negotiable Instruments Law
3.     Insurance Code
INCLUDE: Philippine Deposit Insurance Corporation Act (R.A. 3591)
4.     Transportation Laws
a)     Common Carriers (Civil Code, Arts. 1732 to 1766)
b)    Commercial Contracts for Transportation Overland
(Code of Commerce, Arts. 349 to 379)
c)     Maritime Commerce (Code of Commerce, Arts. 673 to 736; also Arts. 580-584 of Code of Commerce, as superseded by R.A. No. 6106; Arts. 806 to 845 of Code of Commerce; Paragraph 6 of section 3 of Carriage of Goods by Sea Act ([Com. Act. 65])
d)    Public Service Act (Com. Act No. 146), as amended
e)     The Warsaw Convention of 1929 (Limited to the Carrier’s Liability)
5.     Corporation Law
a)     The Corporation Code (B.P. Blg. 68
b)    Securities Regulation Code (R.A. 8799)
c)     Banking Laws (General Terms and Provisions)
i)               The New Central Bank Act (R.A. No. 7653) (Basics)
ii)             Law on Secrecy of Bank Deposits (R.A. No. 1405, as amended)
6.     Intellectual Property Code (R.A. No. 8293) (Basics)
EXCLUDE: Implementing Rules and Regulations
7.     Special Laws
a)     The Chattel Mortgage Law (Act 1508 in Relation to art. 1484, 1485, 2140, and 2141 of the Civil Code)
b)    Real Estate Mortgage Law (Act. No. 3135, as amended by R.A. No. 4118)
c)     Truth in Lending Act (R.A. No. 3765)
EXCLUDE the following:
1)    Omnibus Investment Code of 1987 (E.O. No. 226)
2)    Foreign Investment Act of 1991 (R.A. No. 7042)
* Decisions of the Supreme Court, promulgated up to 30 June 2008, and Republic Acts, Presidential Decrees and Executive Orders, promulgated up to 31 December 2007.
1.     Revised Penal Code (Books I and II), as amended
EXCLUDE:            Penalties for Specific Felonies           
2.     Indeterminate Sentence Law
3.     Probation Law
4.     Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act (R.A. No. 3019, as amended)
5.     Anti-Fencing Law (P.D. No. 1612)
6.     Bouncing Checks Law (B.P. Blg. 22)
7.     Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002 (R.A. No 9165, as amended)
8.     Heinous Crimes Act (R.A. No. 7659, as amended)
9.     Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2001 (R.A. No. 9160)
EXCLUDE: Civil Forfeiture Rules
* Decisions of the Supreme Court, promulgated up to 30 June 2008, and Republic Acts, Presidential Decrees and Executive Orders, promulgated up to 31 December 2007.
1.     The Rules of Court, as amended
a)     1997 Rules of Civil Procedure
b)    Revised Rules of Criminal Procdure (effective December 1, 2000)
c)     Rules on Evidence
d)    Rules on Special Proceedings
2.     The 1991 Revised Rules on Summary Procedure
3.     Local Government Code on Conciliation Procedures
(Book III, Title I, Chapter 7)
4.     The Judiciary Reorganization Act of 1980 (B.P. Blg. 129), as amended by R.A. No. 7691 and rules issued thereunder (emphasis on jurisdiction excluding purely administrative provisions)
5.     Judiciary Act of 1948
EXCLUDE the following:
a)     P.D. No. 946 (Reorganizing the CAR)
b)    Military Justice
6.     Jurisdiction of Sandiganbayan
a)     R.A. No. 7975
b)    R.A. No. 8249
7.     The Rule on the Writ of Amparo (A.M. No. 07-9-12-SC)
8.     The Rule on the Writ of Habeas Data (A.M. No. 08-1-16-SC)a

* Decisions of the Supreme Court, promulgated up to 30 June 2008, and Republic Acts, Presidential Decrees and Executive Orders, promulgated up to 31 December 2007.
1.     Code of Judicial Conduct
2.     Code of Professional Responsibility
3.     Grievance Procedures (Rule 139-B, Rules of Court)
4.     Legal Forms
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